The elliptical flow of fragments is studied for different systems at incident energies between 50 and 1000 MeV/nucleon using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. Our findings reveal that elliptical flow shows a transition from positive (in-plane) to negative (out-of-plane) values in the midrapidity region at a certain incident energy known as the transition energy. This transition energy is found to depend on the model ingredients, size of the fragments, and composite mass of the reacting system as well as on the impact parameter of the reaction. A reasonable agreement is observed for the excitation function of elliptical flow between the data and our calculations. Interestingly, the transition energy is found to exhibit a power-law mass dependence.
Within the framework of the improved isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, the fusion dynamics of symmetric reaction systems are investigated systematically. Calculations show that the number of nucleon transfer in the neck region is appreciably dependent on the incident energies, but strongly on the reaction systems. A comparison of the neck dynamics is performed for the symmetric reactions 58Ni+58Ni and 64Ni+64Ni at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. An increase of the ratios of the neutron to proton in the neck region at initial collision stage is observed and obvious for the latter system, which reduces the fusion barrier of two colliding nuclei. The distribution of the dynamical fusion barriers and the fusion excitation functions are calculated and compared with the available experimental data.
The reaction mechanism of the central collisions and peripheral collisions for $^{112,124}Sn+^{112,124}Sn$ at $E/A=50MeV$ is investigated within the framework of the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The results show that multifragmentation process is an important mechanism at this energy region, and the influence of the cluster emission on the double n/p ratios and the isospin transport ratio are important. Furthermore, three observables, double n/p ratios, isospin diffusion and the rapidity distribution of the ratio $R_{7}$ for $^{112,124}Sn+^{112,124}Sn$ at E/A=50MeV are analyzed with the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The results show that these three observables are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. By comparing the calculation results to the data, the consistent constraint on the density dependence of the symmetry energy from these three observables is obtained.
The dependence between neutron-to-proton yield ratio ($R_{np}$) and neutron skin thickness ($\delta_{np}$) in neutron-rich projectile induced reactions is investigated within the framework of the Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. The density distribution of the Droplet model is embedded in the initialization of the neutron and proton densities in the present IQMD model. By adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutron density in the Droplet model for the projectile, the relationship between the neutron skin thickness and the corresponding $R_{np}$ in the collisions is obtained. The results show strong linear correlation between $R_{np}$ and $\delta_{np}$ for neutron-rich Ca and Ni isotopes. It is suggested that $R_{np}$ may be used as an experimental observable to extract $\delta_{np}$ for neutron-rich nuclei, which is very significant to the study of the nuclear structure of exotic nuclei and the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nuclear matter.
Within the framework of the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, the pion emission in heavy-ion collisions in the region 1 A GeV is investigated systematically, in which the pion is considered to be mainly produced by the decay of resonances $\triangle$(1232) and N*(1440). The in-medium dependence and Coulomb effects of the pion production are included in the calculation. Total pion multiplicity and $\pi^{-}/\pi^{+}$ yields are calculated for the reaction $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au in central collisions for selected Skyrme parameters SkP, SLy6, Ska, SIII and compared them with the measured data by the FOPI collaboration.
Within the framework of the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, the emission of pion in heavy-ion collisions in the region 1 A GeV as a probe of nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities is investigated systematically, in which the pion is considered to be mainly produced by the decay of resonances $\triangle$(1232) and N*(1440). The total pion multiplicities and the $\pi^{-}/\pi^{+}$ yields are calculated for selected Skyrme parameters SkP, SLy6, Ska and SIII, and also for the cases of different stiffness of symmetry energy with the parameter SLy6. Preliminary results compared with the measured data by the FOPI collaboration favor a hard symmetry energy of the potential term proportional to $(\rho/\rho_{0})^{\gamma_{s}}$ with $\gamma_{s}=2$.
The isospin effects in proton-induced reactions on isotopes of 112-132Sn and the corresponding ¦Â-stable isobars are studied by means of the improved quantum molecular dynamics model and some sensitive probes for the density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities are proposed. The beam energy range is chosen to be 100¨C300 MeV. Our study shows that the system size dependence of the reaction cross sections for p+112-132Sn deviates from the Carlson's empirical expression obtained by fitting the reaction cross sections for proton on nuclei along the ¦Â-stability line and sensitively depends on the stiffness of the symmetry energy. We also find that the angular distribution of elastic scattering for p+132Sn at large impact parameters is very sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy, which is uniquely due to the effect of the symmetry potential with no mixture of the effect from the isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon cross sections. The isospin effects in neutron-induced reactions are also studied and it is found that the effects are just opposite to that in proton-induced reactions. We find that the difference between the peaks of the angular distributions of elastic scattering for p+132Sn and n+132Sn at Ep,n=100 MeV and b=7.5 fm is positive for soft symmetry energy Usymsf and negative for super-stiff symmetry energy Usymnlin and close to zero for linear density dependent symmetry energy Usymlin, which seems very useful for constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities.
Signatures of isospin effects were investigated for neutron-rich (124Sn+64Ni) and neutron-poor (112Sn+58Ni) systems at 35 MeV/nucleon for noncentral collisions. The centrality dependence of these signatures was tested for several impact parameter estimators. Our main observations are (i) the yields of 1H and 3He particles in the neutron-poor system are strongly enhanced with respect to the neutron-rich system, and the yields of 3H, 6He, and 7,8Li are suppressed at all impact parameters, (ii) the yields of 2H, 4He, and 6Li particles are almost the same for both systems, (iii) the N/Z ratio of intermediate mass fragments is correlated with the neutron richness of the system and is weakly dependent on the centrality of the collision, and (iv) the neutron richness of the detected fragments increases strongly with decreasing rapidity in the range from that of the projectile-like fragment to the c.m. region. The gross features of experimental data are reproduced by quantum molecular dynamics model calculations. A comparison between model calculations and the data indicates that the fragments produced in the c.m. regions are weakly excited.
Collisions involving 112Sn and 124Sn nuclei have been simulated with the improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model. The results of the calculations reproduce isospin diffusion data from two different observables and the ratios of neutron and proton spectra. By comparing these data to calculations performed over a range of symmetry energies at saturation density and different representations of the density dependence of the symmetry energy, constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-normal density are obtained. Results from present work are compared to constraints put forward in other recent analysis.
Light fragments emitted in 86Kr-124Sn collisions at intermediate energy (Ebeam=25 MeV/nucleon) and larger impact parameters (b=7-10 fm) are studied by a multisource ideal gas model. The momentum component, transverse momentum, and azimuthal angle distributions of light fragments with mass numbers A=1-4 are given. Meanwhile, the correlation between the elliptic flow and transverse momentum, as well as the correlation between the fourth momentum anisotropy and transverse momentum for the mentioned light fragments are given, too. The calculated results are compared with the theoretical results of the Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model.
The shell correction is proposed in the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, which plays an important role in heavy-ion fusion reactions near Coulomb barrier. By using the ImIQMD model, the static and dynamical fusion barriers, dynamical barrier distribution in the fusion reactions are analyzed systematically. The fusion and capture excitation functions for a series of reaction systems are calculated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the fusion cross sections for neutron-rich systems increase obviously, and the strong shell effects of two colliding nuclei result in a decrease of the fusion cross sections at the sub-barrier energies. The lowering of the dynamical fusion barriers favors the enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross sections, which is related to the nucleon transfer and the neck formation in the fusion reactions.
The threshold energies of radial flow in reactions of 40Ca+40Ca and 48Ca+48Ca in central collisions are investigated within an isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model by using three different forms of symmetry energy. It is found that the neutron-rich system has smaller threshold energy of radial flow and this quantity depends on the form of symmetry potential. It is indicated that the threshold energy of radial flow can provide a new method to determine the symmetry energy of asymmetric nuclear matter.
Momentum correlation functions of nucleon-nucleon pairs are presented for reactions with C isotopes bombarding a 12C target within the framework of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The binding-energy dependence of the momentum correlation functions is also explored, and other factors that have an influence on momentum correlation functions are investigated. These factors include momentum-dependent nuclear equations of state, in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, impact parameters, total pair momenta, and beam energy. In particular, the rise and the fall of the strength of momentum correlation functions at lower relative momentum are shown with an increase in beam energy.
Nucleon-nucleon momentum correlation function have been presented for nuclear reactions with neutron-rich or proton-rich projectiles using a nuclear transport theory, namely Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The relationship between the binding energy of projectiles and the strength of proton-neutron correlation function at small relative momentum has been explored, while proton-proton correlation function shows its sensitivity to the proton density distribution. Those results show that nucleon-nucleon correlation function is useful to reflect some features of the neutron- or proton-halo nuclei and therefore provide a potential tool for the studies of radioactive beam physics.
Anisotropic flows ($v_2$ and $v_4$) of light nuclear clusters are studied by Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model for the system of $^{86}$Kr + $^{124}$Sn at intermediate energy and large impact parameters. Number-of-nucleon scaling of the elliptic flow ($v_2$) are demonstrated for the light fragments up to $A$ = 4, and the ratio of $v_4/v_2^2$ shows a constant value of 1/2. In addition, the momentum-space densities of different clusters are also surveyed as functions of transverse momentum, in-plane transverse momentum and azimuth angle relative to the reaction plane. The results can be essentially described by momentum-space power law. All the above phenomena indicate that there exists a number-of-nucleon scaling for both anisotropic flow and momentum-space densities for light clusters, which can be understood by the coalescence mechanism in nucleonic degree of freedom for the cluster formation.
The isoscaling properties of the primary and final products are studied via isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model and the followed sequential decay model GEMINI, respectively. It is found that the isoscaling parameters $\alpha$ of both primary and final products keep no significant change for light fragments, but increases with the mass for intermediate and heavy products. The dynamical effects on isoscaling are exhibited by that $\alpha$ value decreases a little with the evolution time of the system, and opposite trend for the heavy products. The secondary decay effects on isoscaling are reflected in the increasing of the $\alpha$ value for the final products which experiences secondary decay process. Furthermore the density dependence of the symmetry energy has also been explored, it is observed that in the low densities the symmetry energy coefficient has the form of $C_{sym}(\rho)\sim C_{0}(\rho/\rho_{0})^{\gamma}$, where $\gamma = 0.7 \sim 1.3$ for both primary and final products, but $C_{0}$ have different values for primary and final products. It is also suggested that it might be more reasonable to describe the density dependence of the symmetry energy coefficient by the $C_{sym}(\rho/\rho_{0})\approx C_{1}(\rho/\rho_{0})^{\gamma_{soft}} + C_{2}(\rho/\rho_{0})^{\gamma_{stiff}}$ with $\gamma_{soft}\leq 1$, $\gamma_{stiff}\geq 1$ and $C_{1}, C_{2}$ constant parameters.
We have investigated the influence of different forms of symmetry energies on various observables proposed to be sensitive to the symmetry energy at subnormal and supranormal densities for reactions 208Pb +208Pb, 132Sn +124Sn, and 96Zr +96zR at Eb=0.4A GeV within the microscopic transport model¡ªultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model. The same systems are adopted for testing the probes of the symmetry potential at both subnormal and supranormal densities. It is shown that the differences between the predicted values of investigated quantities by different symmetry potentials have a close correspondence with the different behavior of the density dependence of the interaction part of the different symmetry energies. We also find that the comprehensive study with multiple probes provides a possibility for gaining the density dependence of the symmetry potential in a broad density region, which allows us to extract the information of the isospin-dependent part of the effective interaction.
Based on the UrQMD (ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics) model, we have investigated the influence of the symmetry potential on the negatively and positively charged ¦Ð and ¦² hyperon production ratios in heavy ion collisions at the SIS (SchwerIonen Synchrotron) energies. We find that, in addition to ¦Ð-/¦Ð+ ratio, the ¦²-/¦²+ ratio can be taken as a sensitive probe for investigating the density dependence of the symmetry potential of nuclear matter at high densities (1¨C4 times normal baryon density). This sensitivity of the symmetry potential to both the ¦Ð-/¦Ð+ and ¦²-/¦²+ ratios is found to depend strongly on the incident beam energy. Furthermore, the ¦²-/¦²+ ratio is shown to carry the information about the isospin-dependent part of the ¦² hyperon single-particle potential.
The isoscaling behavior is investigated in the frame of Isospin dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) models. The isotopic yields ratio $Y_2$/$Y_1$ for reactions $^{48}Ca$+$^{48}Ca$ and $^{40}Ca+^{40}Ca$ at different entrance channels are simulated and presented, the relationship between the isoscaling parameter and the entrance channel is analyzed, the results show that $\alpha$ and $\beta$ reduce with the rise of incident energies and increase with the impact parameter b, which can be attributed to the temperature varying of the pre-fragments in different entrance channels. The relation of $\alpha$ and symmetry-term coefficient $C_{sym}$ reveals that the chemical potential difference $\triangle\mu$ is sensitive to the symmetry-term coefficient $C_{sym}$.
We investigate separately the isospin effects of Coulomb interaction and symmetry potential on the dissipation and fragmentation in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions by using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the Coulomb interaction induces the reductions of both isospin fractionation ratio and nuclear stopping (momentum dissipation). However, the Coulomb interaction not only does not change obviously the strong isospin effect of the symmetry potential on the isospin fractionation ratio but also does not change obviously that of in-medium two-body collision on the nuclear stopping. On the contrary, the symmetry potential induces the enhancement of the isospin fractionation ratio but it is insensitive to the nuclear stopping. Finally, the competition between the Coulomb interaction and symmetry potential induces the reductions of both isospin fractionation ratio and nuclear stopping for two forms of symmetry potentials in this paper.
Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) results of the neutron-proton correlation function have been systematically investigated for a series nuclear reactions with light projectiles with help of Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The relationship between the binding energy per nucleon of the projectiles and the strength of the neutron-proton HBT at small relative momentum has been obtained. Results show that neutron-proton HBT results are sensitive to the binding energy per nucleon.
Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) results of the nucleon-nucleon correlation function have been presented for the nuclear reactions with neutron-rich projectiles (Be isotopes) using an event-generator, the Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. We explore that the relationship between the binding energy per nucleon of the projectiles and the strength of the neutron-proton HBT at small relative momentum. Moreover, we reveal the relationship between the single neutron separation energy and the strength of the halo neutron-proton HBT. Results show that neutron-proton HBT results are sensitive to binding energy or separation energy.
We present new experimental data on directed flow in collisions of Au+Au, Xe+CsI, and Ni+Ni at incident energies from 90A to 400AMeV. We study the centrality and system dependence of integral and differential directed flow for particles selected according to charge. All the features of the experimental data are compared with isospin quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model calculations in an attempt to extract information about the nuclear matter equation of state (EoS). We show that the combination of rapidity and transverse momentum analysis of directed flow allows to disentangle various parametrizations in the model. At 400AMeV, a soft EoS with momentum dependent interactions is best suited to explain the experimental data in Au+Au and Xe+CsI, but in the case of Ni+Ni the model underpredicts flow for any EoS. At 90AMeV incident beam energy, none of the IQMD parametrizations studied here are able to consistently explain the experimental data.
We studied the influence of a momentum dependent interaction in the context of isospin effects on fragmentation and dissipation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions by using an isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. It is shown that nuclear stopping, the number of nucleons emitted, and the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments are larger with a momentum dependent interaction than without. In particular, the differences for these observables, when using an isospin dependent in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section versus an isospin independent one, are also larger at high energies for a momentum dependent interaction than without one. Therefore, momentum dependence enhances the sensitivities of those observables to the isospin effect of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section towards high beam energies.
The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IDQMD) model is used to study the total reaction cross section $\sigma_R$. The energy-dependent Pauli volumes of neutrons and protons have been discussed and introduced into the IDQMD calculation to replace the widely used energy-independent Pauli volumes. The modified IDQMD calculation can reproduce the experimental $\sigma_R$ well for both stable and exotic nuclei induced reactions. Comparisons of the calculated $\sigma_R$ induced by $^{11}Li$ with different initial density distributions have been performed. It is shown that the calculation by using the experimentally deduced density distribution with a long tail can fit the experimental excitation function better than that by using the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculated density without long tails. It is also found that $\sigma_R$ at high energy is sensitive to the long tail of density distribution.
Based on an isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model we studied the influence of a medium correction of an isospin dependent nucleon nucleon cross section on the fragmentation at the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. We found that the medium correction from an isospin dependent nucleon nucleon cross section increases the dependence of the fragmentation on the isospin effect of in-medium nucleon nucleon cross section, at the same time, the momentum dependent interaction (MDI) produces also an important role for enhancing the influence of the medium correction on the isospin effect of two-body collisions in the fragmentation process. In this case, the dependence of the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments $N_{imf}$ on the isospin effect of two-body collision due to the medium correction and MDI, is a probe for extracting the information on the isospin dependent nucleon cnucleon cross section in the medium correction
The influence of medium correction from an isospin dependent nucleon nucleon cross section on the fragmentation and nucleon emission in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions was studied by using an isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamical model (IQMD). We found that the medium correction enhances the dependence of multiplicity of intermediate mass fragment $N_{imf}$ and the number of nucleon emission $N_{n}$ on the isospin effect of the nucleon nucleon cross section,while the momentum dependent interaction (MDI) produces also an important role for enhancing the influence of the medium correction on the isospin dependence of two-body collision in the fragmentation and nucleon emission processes. After considering the medium correction and the role of momentum dependent interaction the increase for the dependence of $N_{imf}$ and $N_{n}$ on the isospin effect of two-body collision is favorable to learn the information about the isospin dependent nucleon nucleon cross section
The degree of isospin fractionation is measured by $(N/Z)_{n}$ / $(N/Z)_{N_{imf}}$, where $(N/Z)_{n}$ and $(N/Z)_{N_{imf}}$ are the saturated neutron-proton ratio of nucleon emissions (gas phase) and that of fragment emissions (liquid phase) in heavy ion collision at intermediate energy . The calculated results by using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model show that the degree of isospin fractionation is sensitive to the neutron-proton ratio of colliding system but insensitive to the difference between the neutron-proton ratio of target and that of projectile. In particular, the degree of isospin fractionation sensitively depends on the symmetry potential. However its dependences on the isospin dependent in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section and momentum dependent interaction are rather weak. The nucleon emission (gas phase) mainly determines the dynamical behavior of the degree of isospin fractionation in the isospin fractionation process, compared to the effect of fragment emission. In this case, we propose that $(N/Z)_{n}$ / $(N/Z)_{N_{imf}}$ or $(N/Z)_{n}$ can be directly compared with the experimental data so that the information about symmetry potential can be obtained.
By using the Isospin Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics Model (IQMD), we study the dependence of nuclear stopping Q_{ZZ}/A and R in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions on system size, initial N/Z, isospin symmetry potential and the medium correction of two-body cross sections. We find the effect of initial N/Z ratio, isospin symmetry potential on stopping is weak. The excitation function of Q_{ZZ}/A and R depends on the form of medium correction of two-body cross sections, the equation of state of nuclear matter (EOS). Our results show the behavior of the excitation function of Q_{ZZ}/A and R can provide clearer information of the isospin dependence of the medium correction of two-body cross sections.
The effects of the symmetry potential and the isospin dependent in-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross section on the number of proton(neutron) emissions N$_p(N_n$) are studied respectively within an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. The isospin dependent in-medium NN cross section is found to have a strong influence on N$_p(N_n$) but N$_p(N_n$) is not sensitive to the symmetry potential for the neutron-deficient colliding system at relatively high energies.We propose to make use of the N$_p(N_n$) as a probe to extract information on the isospin dependent in-medium NN cross section.
Using isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamical model, the studies of the isospin effect on preequilibrium nucleon emission in heavy ion collisions under different entrance channel conditions show that the ratio of preequilibrium neutron number to proton number depends strongly on symmetry potential, beam energy, and the ratio of neutron to proton of the colliding system, but weakly on isospin dependent in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, impact parameter, Pauli potential, and momentum dependent interaction in the energy region from 45MeV/u up to 150 MeV/u where the dynamics is dominated by nucleon-nucleon collisions. In addition, the ratio of preequilibrium neutron number to proton number for a neutron-rich colliding system is larger than the initial value of the ratio of the colliding system, but the ratio for a neutron-deficient system is less than the initial value.
Within the framework of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular-dynamics model, the rotational flow in reactions of 58Fe+58Fe and 58Ni+58Ni at 40 MeV/nucleon for different impact parameters is investigated by analyzing the midrapidity azimuthal distribution. The rotational observables are also calculated semiquantitatively. For the first time, it is found that the more neutron-rich system (58Fe+58Fe) exhibits stronger rotational collective flow. This isospin dependence of rotational collective flow is more appreciable in semiperipheral collisions and it is shown to mainly result from the isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section rather than the symmetry energy. Meanwhile, it is indicated that the rotational flow depends strongly on the impact parameter.
Within the framework of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model, the zero-range 2-body part of the Skyrme interaction is replaced by a finite-range Gaussian 2-body interaction. From the transverse momentum analysis in the reaction of system $^{93}$Nb + $^{93}$Nb at energy of 400 MeV/nucleon and impact parameter $b$=3 fm, it is shown that the finite-range nuclear force enhances the transverse momentum of the reaction system and it can partly replace the momentum dependent part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.
The squeeze-out flow in reactions of $^{124}$Sn + $^{124}$Sn and $^{124}$Ba + $^{124}$Ba at different incident energies for different impact parameters is investigated by means of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. For the first time, it is found that the more neutron-rich system ($% ^{124}$Sn + $^{124}$Sn) exhibits weaker squeeze-out flow. This isospin dependence of the squeeze-out flow is shown to mainly result from the isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section and the symmetry energy.
Within the framework of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model, the multifragmentation in reactions of 112Sn+112Sn and 124Sn+124Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon is investigated. The calculated results are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental data which indicated that there were significantly different scalings of the mean number of intermediate mass fragments with the number of neutron and charged particles between the two reaction systems. Meanwhile, it is shown that the preequilibrium emission may affect strongly these scalings.
Within the framework of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in which the initial neutron and proton densities are sampled according to the densities calculated from the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method and the initial Fermi momenta of neutrons and protons are calculated from the Fermi gas model, we study systematically the transverse collective flow of different fragment types at an energy of 55 MeV/nucleon and the balance energy in the reactions 58Fe+58Fe and 58Ni+58Ni. The results from the present calculations indicate that the neutron-rich system (58Fe+58Fe) displays stronger negative deflection and has a higher balance energy, which are qualitatively in agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, the effects of the isospin-dependent symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross sections on collective flow are studied.
The mass-symmetric reactions 58Fe,58Ni +58Fe,58Ni were studied at a beam energy of Ebeam=30?MeV/nucleon in order to investigate the isospin dependence of fragment emission. Ratios of inclusive yields of isotopic fragments from hydrogen through nitrogen were extracted as a function of laboratory angle. A moving source analysis of the data indicates that at laboratory angles around 40¡ã the yield of intermediate mass fragments (IMF¡¯s) beyond Z=3 is predominantly from a midrapidity source. The angular dependence of the relative yields of isotopes beyond Z=3 indicates that the IMF¡¯s at more central angles originate from a source which is more neutron deficient than the source responsible for fragments emitted at forward angles. The charge distributions and kinetic energy spectra of the IMF¡¯s at various laboratory angles were well reproduced by calculations employing a quantum molecular-dynamics code followed by a statistical multifragmentation model for generating fragments. The calculations indicate that the measured IMF¡¯s originate mainly from a single source. The isotopic composition of the emitted fragments is, however, not reproduced by the same calculation. The measured isotopic and isobaric ratios indicate an emitting source that is more neutron rich in comparison to the source predicted by model calculations.
The importance of an isospin dependent nuclear mean field (IDMF) in regard to the pion production mechanism is studied for the reaction Au+Au at 1 GeV/nucleon using the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model. In particular, the effect of the IDMF on pion spectra and the charged pion ratio are analyzed. It is found that the inclusion of a IDMF considerably suppresses the low-pt pions, thus leading to a better agreement with the data on pion spectra. Moreover, the rapidity distribution of the charged pion ratio appears to be sensitive to the isospin dependence of the nuclear mean field.
The importance of a isospin dependent nuclear mean field (IDMF) in regard to the pion production mechanism is studied for the reaction $Au+Au$ at 1 GeV/nucleon using the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model. In particular, the effect of the IDMF on pion spectra and the charged pion ratio are analyzed. It is found that the inclusion of a IDMF considerably suppresses the low$-p_t$ pions, thus, leading to a better agreement with the data on pion spectra. Moreover, the rapidity distribution of the charged pion ratio appears to be sensitive to the isospin dependence of the nuclear mean field.
Triple differential cross sections of pions in heavy ion collisions at 1 GeV/nucleon are studied with the isospin quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. After discussing general properties of ¦¤ resonance and pion production we focus on azimuthal correlations: At projectile- and target-rapidities we observe an anticorrelation in the in-plane transverse momentum between pions and protons. At c.m.-rapidity, however, we find that high pt pions are being preferentially emitted perpendicular to the event plane. We investigate the causes of those correlations and their sensitivity on the density and momentum dependence of the real and imaginary part of the nucleon and pion optical potential.